Source Documents Index – All Documents

The following are source documents which cover basic historical events occurring since the initiation of New Mexico statehood in 1912. They are intended to be used for teaching New Mexico history.

Statehood (1912)

  • Constitution Convention
    • Good Things in Constitution
      Newspaper Article - Santa Fe New Mexican
      This article is written before the citizens vote on the constitution. It was written by persons in the El Paso Herald. It discusses the protection of Miners, Railroaders and other Workingmen. The rights of natives are secured. The article discusses
  • US Government Role
    • 1848 Map of Western Territories
      Map - Center for Legislative Archives, National Archives
      This is the Map of Western Territories that President James K. Polk sent to Congress with his annual message in 1848. The map shows the New Mexico territory as the boundaries were established by various treaties, such as the Treaty of Guadalupe
    • 1912 Electoral Vote Tally
      Primary Document - National Archives
      This is the FIRST Presidential Election in which NM was a state. On February 12, 1913 the House and the Senate met in a joint session to count the votes from the 1912 presidential election. The major candidates in the election were unpopular
    • Admission to Statehood
      Political Cartoon - National Archives
      This cartoon by Clifford Berryman appeared in the Washington Post on May 24, 1911. On June 20, 1910, Congress passed an act to authorize the people of the New Mexico and Arizona Territories to form constitutions and state governments, and provide
    • ARTICLE XXI, Compact with the United States
      Primary Document - Constitution of the State of New Mexico
      This document provides the information that deals with the conditions that the state agreed to in becoming part of the United States. This original document was approved on June 20, 1910. There were changes that were adopted by the people on
    • Credentials for the first US Senators from NM
      Primary Document - National Archives
      These letters authorized Albert Fall and Thomas Catron as Senators from New Mexico. They were written to the president of the Senate from the then Governor William
    • Enters the Sisterhood of States
      Newspaper Article - Hope Penasco Valley Press
      This article describes the announcement of statehood for New Mexico. The article also mentions the inauguration of new governor McDonald on January 15, 1912. What statehood means is also
    • Greeting President Roosevelt at Albuquerque
      Photograph - Stereograph Cards Collection, Library of Congress
      This is a photo of President Theodore Roosevelt's train stop in Albuquerque. During this time, the New Mexico Territory was appealing to the US Government for statehood.  This stereograph was taken in 1903 and is part of the Stereograph
    • Joint Resolution 14 to Admit Arizona and New Mexico to US
      Primary Document - National Archives
      On August 10, 1911, Congress passed H.J. Res. 14, "to admit the territories of New Mexico and Arizona as States into the Union." The legislation, however, contained a requirement that the people of Arizona vote on the recall provision as a separate
    • Public Meeting Information 1864
      Primary Document - Library of Congress
      This is an announcement for a public meeting held in Santa Fe, NM on February 21, 1864. The public meeting, presided over by Territorial Governor Connelly, was in response to derogatory comments published in the Eastern US press about Brigadier
    • The Next Candidate for Statehood
      Political Cartoon - Library of Congress
      Illustration shows Columbia handing a dress labeled "Statehood" to a young woman labeled "New
    • Waiting for their Stars
      Political Cartoon - Library of Congress
      Illustration shows Columbia sitting in a chair with the American flag across her lap, she is holding a star and has a pot of stars and sewing materials next to her; standing on the left are three male figures representing "New Mexico, Arizona, [and]
    • William Taft Signing NM Statehood Bill
      Photograph - Harris & Ewing Collection, Library of Congress
      The photograph was taken as President William Howard Taft signed the bill to make New Mexico as state in 1912. This photograph is part of the Harris & Ewing Collection at the Library of
  • Treaty Commitments
    • Controversial guidelines spark Rio Chama River rift
      Newspaper Article - Santa Fe New Mexican
      This article discusses the challenge to the San Juan Chama Diversion project by a land grant group who are protective of the water rights provided in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hildago. The article summarizes the rift between the farmers on the Rio
  • Land Grants
    • Advertisement: The Maxwell Land Grant
      Advertisement - East Las Vegas Daily Optic
      This advertisement is representative of those offered in the selling of Maxwell Land Grant property. The article promotes farming with perpetual water rights, grazing, and gold mining. It is noted in the title that the title is established as a
    • ARTICLE II, Bill of Rights
      Primary Document - NM Constitution
      Section 5 of the Bill of Rights addresses the Treaty of Guadalupe Hildago and it is the key statement in the NM Constitution that provides a reference for Land Grant
    • Chilili Demands Presented
      Newspaper Article - Albuquerque Journal
      This article outlines the demands of the Committee for the Reformation and Preservation of the Chilili Land Grant. The article outlines five demands regarding the use of the Chilili land by those not associated with the villagers and heirs of the
    • Joseph's Joint Resolution
      Newspaper Article - Santa Fe Herald
      This article discusses the wording associated with the protection of settlers in the Maxwell Land Grant. The articles highlights the decision made by the Secretary of Interior on December 31. 1869, regarding land lying and being situate in the
    • Judge McFie's Baby Case in the Supreme Court
      Newspaper Article - Santa Fe New Mexican
      The article discusses the disposition of the Maxwell land grant in an ownership dispute, which was decided in the Territorial Supreme Court and affirmed by the US Supreme Court. The word "baby" in the title refers to the fact that this was Judge
    • New Map of Texas with Land Grants
      Map - Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress
      Map shows colonies and land grants, Neuces River as border between Texas and Mexican states, Indian Territory attached to Arkansas, Santa Fe area, towns, rivers, and roads. This was engraved by James H. Young in 1835. This map is part of the map
    • Railroad Land Grants - NM Territory
      Map - Railroad Maps Collection, Library of Congress
      Map showing portions of Arizona and New Mexico indicating land grants on either side of the right of way of the railroad. The map was created in 1883 and is part of the Railroad Maps Collection at the Library of
    • Rio Hondo Land
      Photograph - Farm Security Administration Collection, Library of Congress
      Scene on strip farms along the Rio Hondo near Taos, New Mexico. This land was originally Spanish land grants and has been divided and subdivided among the descendents of the first farmers until the farms are today extremely small, some being only
    • Simms' Mesa Tract Will Be Fully Developed
      Newspaper Article - Albuquerque Journal
      This article describes the disposition of the original Elena Gallegos Land Grant by Albert G. Simms. The article describes the boundaries of the
    • Spanish-American Family Farm
      Photograph - Farm Security Administration Collection, Library of Congress
      Spanish-American family homes in a group, farming land in the background. Llano de San Juan, New Mexico. This photo was taken in 1940 as part of the Farm Security Administration/Office of War Information Collection at the Library of
    • Tributary of the Rio Costilla
      Photograph - Farm Security Administration Collection, Library of Congress
      Tributary of the Rio Costilla near Amalia, New Mexico. Irrigated farmland is in the center and grazing land surrounding. This photo was taken in 1940 as part of the Farm Security Administration/Office of War Information Collection at the Library of
    • Under heading: Monday, March 2
      Newspaper Article - Santa Fe Daily New Mexican
      This short announcement in March of 1891 describes Federal action establishing a court for the adjudication of private Spanish and Mexican land grant
  • Borders and Counties
    • Bernalillio County Courthouse 1908
      Photograph - Detroit Publishing Company Photograph Collection, Library of Congress
      This is a 1908 photo of the Bernalillio County Courthouse in Albuquerque, NM. It was built in 1886 and was replaced with a new courthouse built in 1926. This photo is part of the Detroit Publishing Company Collection at the Library of
    • Map of NM Showing County Seats and Boundaries 1908
      Map - Legislative Archives, National Archives
      This map shows the New Mexico county boundaries as they existed in 1908 when the territory was seeking statehood. It also shows the proposed Curry County, named after then-Territorial Governor George Curry, which became a county in 1909. RG 233,
    • Map of NM with Coach Lines, Rivers and Lakes
      Map - Transportation and Communication Collection, Library of Congress
      Map shows relief by hachures, drainage, counties, cities and towns, roads, trails, and proposed or surveyed railroad lines. This map was done in 1879 by Rand McNally and is part of the Transportation and Communication Collection at the Library of
    • Map of Railroads
      Map - Railroad Maps Collection, Library of Congress
      Map of the Rio Grande and Pecos Railway showing its connections with the Texas Mexican, Texas Mexican Short Line, Mexican National, Texas & St. Louis, and Denver & Rio Grande Narrow Gauge systems and also the International & Great
    • Map of US with NM - 1847
      Map - Library of Congress, Geography and Map Division
      This is a map of the US with the NM territory acquired during Mexican-American War. Map was published in 1847. (Actually titled "New map of the United States and
    • Santa Fe Route 1888
      Map - Railroad Maps Collection, Library of Congress
      1888 Map of the southwestern United States and northern Mexico showing relief by hachures, drainage, cities and towns, stations, Indian reservations, state boundaries, and the railroad network emphasizing the main line. The map includes railroad
  • Political Structure
    • ARTICLE III, Distribution of Powers
      Primary Document - NM Constitution
      This article is the key article that explains the political structure of the new state. Articles IV, V, and VI go into greater detail as to the functions of the Legislative, Executive, and Judicial Departments. This particular statement was adopted
    • New Mexico Capitol Building
      Photograph - Office of War Information Collection, Library of Congress
      This a photo of the capitol building as it looked in 1943.   This was the capitol building until the new capitol building, The Roundhouse, was built in 1966. This photo was taken by John Collier, Jr. as part of the Federal Security Administration
  • Immigration Policies
    • ARTICLE VII, Elective Franchise; and ARTICLE II, Bill of Rights
      Primary Document - NM Constitution
      Generally the articles in the NM Constitution address the rights of citizens. Voting rights are defined in Article VII, Elective Franchise, which was adopted by the people on November 7, 1967. Section 22 in Article II, Bill of Rights, addresses the
  • Secondary and Higher Education
    • ARTICLE XII, Education
      Primary Document - NM Constitution
      This article deals with the provisions of Secondary Education. Sections 1, 5, 8, 9, and 10 have been selected to emphasize significant provisions that deal with education offerings at the secondary level. Section 11 is the November 3, 1964 adoption
    • Indian Service School, Taos
      Photograph - Farm Security Administration Collection, Library of Congress
      At work in the Indian Service School. Taos, New Mexico. This photo was taken in 1936 as part of the Farm Security Administration/Office of War Information Collection at the Library of
    • University of New Mexico
      Photograph - Office of War Information Collection, Library of Congress
      This photo is of a building at the University of New Mexico.This photo was taken by John Collier Jr. in 1943 and is part of the Farm Security Administration - Office of War Information Collection at the Library of Congress. In 1941 to 1943, Collier

New Mexico Role in WW I Era (1916-1919)

  • Pancho Villa Invades NM
    • Almost Escapes on Villa's Horse
      Newspaper Article - Western Liberal, Lordsburg, NM
      This 1916 newspaper article is a first-person description of the abduction, experiences and release of a Mormon colonist in Northern Mexico by Pancho Villa's forces just prior to and during his attack on Columbus, New Mexico. It provides some
    • General Francisco (Pancho) Villa on Horseback
      Photograph - National Photo Company Collection, Library of Congress, Reproduction Number: LC-DIG-npcc-19554
      Photograph of General Francisco (Pancho) Villa on horseback, taken sometime between 1908 and
    • General Pershing
      Photograph - US Army
      This is a photo of General Pershing looking over notes at his camp for the US Army Punitive Expedition in
    • General Pershing at Camp
      Photograph - Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress
      Photo of General John J. Pershing at camp during US Army Punitive Expedition in Mexico.  This photo was taken in
    • Hand Carving up a map of Southwestern United States
      Political Cartoon - Library of Congress
      World War I cartoon shows a hand in a gauntlet (decorated with the imperial German eagle) carving up a map of the Southwestern United States. Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas are labeled "For Mexico." California is labeled "For Japan(?)" The rest of
    • Mexican War 1914: Large Group of Federal Prisoners
      Photograph - Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division
      This is a photo of a large group of Federal Mexican War prisoners in
    • Pancho Villa - Uncle Sam Berryman Cartoon
      Political Cartoon - 1916 Cartoon by Clifford K. Berryman, via National Archive Berryman Collection
      In this 1916 Political cartoon, Uncle Sam leaps across the border fence with Mexico to chase Pancho Villa saying “I've Had About Enough of
    • Pershing's Camp
      Photograph - Underwood & Underwood
      This photo is at General Pershing's camp in Mexico during his punitive expedition. It shows Pershing's men baking bread in a oven for the
    • The Pershing "Punitive" Expedition
      Political Cartoon - Cabinet of American Illustration Collection, Library of Congress
      This political cartoon shows Pershing "pursuit" of Pancho Villa in Mexico. The cartoon is making fun at the fact that Pershing was having difficulty in finding and capturing Villa. The cartoon was published in 1916 and is part of the Cabinet of
    • Villa & Staff, Mexico
      Photograph - George Grantham Bain Collection, Library of Congress
      Photo shows Francisco "Pancho" Villa (at the "X"), Calixto Contreras (4th from left) and Fidel Avila (3rd from right), at Hacienda de Bustillos, Chihuahua
    • Zimmermann Telegram
      Primary Document - U.S. National Archives
      The Zimmermann Telegram was a 1917 coded message from the Foreign Secretary of the German Empire, Arthur Zimmermann to the German Minister to Mexico, Heinrich von Eckard, offering United States territory to Mexico in return for joining the German
  • Prohibition
  • Flu Epidemic
    • A Proclamation
      Newspaper Article - The Roswell Daily Record
      This is a proclamation issued by the Governor of New Mexico designed to curb the spread of the Spanish

New Mexico Role in WW II (1941-45)

  • Navajo Code Talkers
    • Navajo Code Talker Honored
      Newspaper Article - Santa Fe New Mexican
      Most of the code talker articles have been restricted in the Access Newspaper Archive database. This article was after the restriction and is somewhat later than the original articles. The article does define Code Talker
  • Internment of Japan Descendants
    • Executive Order 9066 - Japanese Internment
      Primary Document - National Archives
      Executive Order 9066 was a United States presidential executive order signed and issued during World War II by the United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt on February 19, 1942, authorizing the Secretary of War to prescribe certain areas as
  • Manhattan Project
    • Albert Einstein Letter to FDR
      Primary Document - FDR Library
      This is a letter from Albert Einstein to President Roosevelt in 1939. This letter helped to start the Manhattan
    • Deadliest Weapons in World's History, Made In Santa Fe Vicinity
      Newspaper Article - Santa Fe New Mexican
      In this article published on August 6, 1945, the same day the atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima, Santa Fe first learns of a secret town of 6,000 residents located at the site of the Los Alamos Ranch School on the Pajarito Plateau. The new town of
    • FDR's Response to Einstein Letter
      Primary Document - FDR Library
      This is President Roosevelt's response to Albert Einstein's letter about atomic testing. This letter was done in 1939 by Edwin Watson, secretary to the
    • Fuller Lodge - Los Alamos, NM
      Photograph - Historic American Building Collections, Library of Congress
      This is a photograph of the Fuller Lodge in Los Alamos, NM. The Fuller Lodge was used by the military staff and J. Oppenheimer during the Manhattan Project. This photo was complied by the Historic American Buildings Survey after 1933.  Part of the
    • July 16, 1945 - First Atomic Bomb Detonation
      Drawing - Historic American Engineering Record, Library of Congress
      This 1968 document is the explanation of the first atomic detonation at the Trinity Site, White Sands, NM. It gives details of the detonation. LOC: HAER NM,27-ALMOG.V,1A- (sheet 4 of
    • Letter, FDR to Oppenheimer
      Primary Document - Library of Congress
      In the midst of World War II, while engaged abroad in a major conflict with Germany and Japan, the United States was also working furiously at home toward the completion of the Manhattan Project. This huge research and development project was begun
    • Notebook of Manhattan Project Testing
      Primary Document - National Archives
      Eight months after the United States entered World War II, the Federal Government launched the Manhattan Project, an all-out, but highly secret, effort to build an atomic bomb—and to build one before the Germans did. The task was to translate the